Coding Tutorials Blog

10 Programming Languages Side by Side (JS, Python, Ruby, PHP, GO, Rust, Dart, C Sharp, Java, Ballerina)

June 02, 2021

Using the below you can see the basics of 10 different languages. For most of these langauges you should be able to try them out by generating a REPL.

How to print text to the console

One of the first things you need to learn in any language is how to print text in the console. Being able to print text to console allows us to…

  • print the value of variables to check that they have the right values
  • print the return values of functions so we can make sure they return the right value
  • be used just to print text to confirm parts of our code are running

Javascript

console.log("Hello World")

Python

print("Hello World")

Ruby

puts "Hello World"

PHP

<?php

echo "Hello World";

?>

GO

import fmt

func main(){
  fmt.Println("Hello World")
}

Rust

fn main(){
  print!("Hello World");
}

Dart

void main(){
  print("Hello, World!");
}

C Sharp

using System;

namespace HelloWorldApp {
  class HelloWorld {
    static void Main(string[] args){
      Console.WriteLine("Hello World");
    }
  }
}

Java

class HelloWorld {
  public static void main(String[] args){
    System.out.println("Hello, World");
  }
}

Ballerina

import ballerina/io;

public function main() {
  io:println("Hello World");
}

Declaring Variables

Storing data to use is pivotal in programming. Data is generally stored in variables that we declare. These variables can hold data like numbers, strings and booleans (true/false).

Javascript

let number = 5
let str = "Hello"
let bool = true
console.log(number, str, bool)

Python

number = 5
string = "hello"
boolean = True
print(number, string, boolean)

Ruby

num = 5
str = "Hello"
bool = true
puts num, str, bool

PHP

<?php
$num = 5;
$str = "Hello";
$bool = true;

echo $num;
echo $str;
echo $bool;
?>

GO

import fmt

func main(){
  num := 5
  str := "Hello"
  boolean := true
  fmt.Println(num, str, boolean)
}

Rust

fn main(){
  let num = 5;
  let string = "Hello";
  let boolean = true;
  print!("{0} - {1} - {2}", num, string, boolean );
}

Dart

void main (){
  var number = 5;
  var string = "hello";
  var boolean = true;
  print(number, string, boolean);
}

C Sharp

using System;

namespace MyProgramApp {
  class MyProgram {
    static void Main(string[] args){
      int num = 5;
      string str = "Hello";
      bool boolean = true;

      Console.WriteLine(num);
      Console.WriteLine(str);
      Console.WriteLine(boolean);
    }
  }
}

Java

class Main {
  public static void main(String[] args){
    int num = 5;
    String str = "Hello";
    boolean bool = true;
    System.out.println(num);
    System.out.println(str);
    System.out.println(bool);
  }
}

Ballerina

import ballerina/io;

public function main(){
  int num = 5;
  string str = "Hello";
  boolean bool = true;

  io:println(num);
  io:println(str);
  io:println(bool);
}

Collection arrays and key/value pairs

Usually you have two main collections you’ll use most of the time.

  • Arrays/Lists that will be used to store data in an order that is referenced by a zero based index
  • A key/value pair structure by which you can reference different values based on a key.

Javascript

const myArray = [1,2,3,4,5]
const myObject = {name: "Alex Merced", age: 35}

console.log(myArray)
console.log(myObject)

Python

my_list = [1,2,3,4,5]
my_dictionary = {"name": "Alex Merced, "age": 35}

print(my_list)
print(my_dictionary)

Ruby

my_array = [1,2,3,4,5]
my_hash = {name: "Alex Merced", age: 35}

puts my_array
puts my_hash

PHP

<?php

$my_array = [1,2,3,4,5];
$my_associative_array = ["name" => "Alex Merced", "age" => 35];

var_dump($my_array);
var_dump($my_associative_array);

?>

GO

import fmt

func main(){
  my_slice := []int{1,2,3,4,5}
  my_map := map[string]string{"name":"alex merced", "age":"35"}

  fmt.Println(my_slice)
  fmt.Println(my_map)
}

Rust

use std::collections::HashMap;

fn main(){
  let my_array = [1,2,3,4,5];
  let mut my_hashmap = HashMap::new();
  my_hashmap.insert("name", "Alex Merced");
  my_hashmap.insert("age", "35");
  println!("{:?}", my_array); 
  println!("{:?}", my_hashmap);
}

Dart

void main (){
  final my_list = [1,2,3,4,5];
  final my_map = {"name": "Alex Merced", "age":"35"}
  print(my_list);
  print(my_map);
}

C Sharp

using System;
using System.Collections;

namespace MyProgramApp {
  class MyProgram {
    static void Main(string[] args){
      int[] my_array = {1,2,3,4,5};
      Hashtable my_ht = new Hashtable();
      my_ht.Add("name", "Alex Merced");
      my_ht.Add("age", "35");
      Console.WriteLine(my_array);
      Console.WriteLine(my_ht);
    }
  }
}

Java

import java.util.*;

class MyProgram {
  public static void main(String[] args){
    int[] my_array = {1,2,3,4,5};
    Hashtable my_ht = new Hashtable();
    my_ht.put("name", "Alex Merced");
    my_ht.put("age", "35");
    System.out.println(my_array);
    System.out.println(my_ht);
  }
}

Ballerina

import ballerin/io;

public function main(){
  int[] my_array = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
  map<string> my_map = {
    "name": "Alex Merced",
    "age" : "35"
  };

  io:println(my_array);
  io:println(my_map);
}

Defining Function

Functions allow you define blocks of code you can run on-demand. Pivotal to any programming language! There are two steps:

  • declare/define the function
  • call/invoke the function

Javascript

function helloWorld(){
  console.log("Hello World")
}

helloWorld()

Python

def hello_world():
  print("Hello World")

hello_world()

Ruby

def hello_world
  puts "Hello World"
end

hello_world

PHP

<?php

function helloWorld(){
  echo "Hello World";
}

helloWorld();

?>

GO

import fmt

func helloWorld(){
  fmt.Println("hello world")
}

func main(){
  helloWorld()
}

Rust

fn hello_world(){
  println!("Hello World");
}

fn main(){
  hello_world();
}

Dart

void hello_world(){
  print("Hello World");
}

void main(){
  hello_world()
}

C Sharp

using System;

namespace MyProgramApp {
  class MyProgram {
    static void Main(string[] args){
      HelloWorld();
    }

    static void HelloWorld(){
      Console.WriteLine("Hello World");
    }
  }
}

Java

class MyProgram {
  public static void main(String[] args){
    hello_world();
  }

  public static void hello_world(){
    System.out.println("Hello, World");
  }
}

Ballerina

import ballerina/io;

function hello_world(){
  io:println("Hello World");
}

public function main(){
  hello_world();
}

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